Diagnosing autism in toddlers is a delicate and comprehensive process that involves the expertise of psychologists and a variety of assessment tools. Two key components in this evaluation are the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2) and parent interviews. In this blog post, we'll explore how these tools are used by psychologists to assess toddlers for autism.
The ADOS-2 is a structured, play-based, standardized assessment tool specifically designed to evaluate individuals for autism. It's considered one of the most reliable instruments for diagnosing autism, and it plays a vital role in the evaluation of toddlers. The ADOS-2 has specific modules that are administered based on the age and language level of the child. The Toddler Module is administered to children between the ages of 12 and 30 months who do not consistently use phrase speech. Module 1 is administered to children 31 months and older who do not consistently use phrase speech. These are the most common ADOS-2 modules used during assessments of toddlers who are suspected of having ASD.
Here's how psychologists use ADOS-2:
Observation: During an assessment, using a variety of toys and planned interactions in a controlled environment, a trained clinician observes and interacts with the child, as well as watches the child’s interactions with their parent(s) and/or caregiver(s). The clinician carefully observes the child's social interactions, communication skills, and repetitive behaviors.
Scoring: The clinician assigns scores based on the child's behaviors and responses during the assessment. These scores provide data which are evaluated along with the other information obtained during the course of the evaluation.
In addition to the ADOS-2 assessment, parent interviews are an essential part of the evaluation process. Parents and caregivers are the experts in the child. The information provided by parents or caregivers is crucial to gain a comprehensive understanding of the child's behavior, development, and family history. Here's how parent interviews are used:
Gathering Information: Collaboration with parents is a vital aspect of the evaluation process. Parents' observations and insights are invaluable in helping psychologists make an accurate diagnosis. Psychologists conduct structured interviews with parents to collect information about the child's early development, milestones, social interactions, and communication skills. They also inquire about any concerns the parents may have.
Family History: Understanding the family's medical and developmental history can be crucial in assessing the risk factors for autism. Psychologists may ask about any family members with similar conditions.
Parent/Caregiver Report Forms: Parents and Caregivers are typically given various questionnaires to complete in addition to the clinical interviews. These measures are a valuable tool to provide additional specific information about the child. Measures are scored and incorporated into the data obtained during the course of the evaluation.
The combination of the ADOS-2 assessment and parent interviews provides a holistic view of the child's development. Psychologists consider both the structured observation of the child's behavior and the valuable input from parents. This comprehensive approach helps ensure a more accurate diagnosis. The clinical assessment team at Insights, Colorado Assessment & Therapy are experienced in evaluating toddlers for a possible diagnosis of ASD and discussing with families the next steps following a diagnosis.